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Specific Gravity

The specific gravity of a sample can be determined with the accuracy required for mixer selection and loading as follows:

  1. Weigh any bottle empty in pounds or grams.
  2. 'Weigh the bottle filled with water and calculate the weight of water (B minus A = weight of water).

Weigh the bottle full of sample and calculate the weight of the sample (C minus A = weight of sample
D). Specific Gravity is C/B - weight of sample/weight of water.

Specific Gravity of a substance is defined as the ratio of its density (specific weight) to the density of some standard substance. For liquids the standard usually employed is either water at 4° Centigrade (39.2°F. ) or water at 60° F. The mass in grams of 1 milliliter of water at 4° Centigrade is unity. Thus for practical problems the specific gravity of a liquid is frequently taken as numerically (not dimensionally) equal to the density in grams per milliliter
Specific Gravity of a liquid is determined by:

  1. By weighing a known volume or weighing an equal volume of water and liquid and comparing.
  2. By determining the loss of weight of a plummet or known volume weighed in air and in liquid, or by comparing the weight of a plummet of unknown volume in water (at 4° C.) and in the liquid.
  3. By means of Hydrometers; weighted glass floats which sink in the liquid to a depth which depends on the density of the fluid. The reading is taken at the liquid line on a calibrated stem which extends above the liquid. Hydrometers are calibrated:
  4. In terms of specific gravity of the liquid at 60° F. compared with water at 60° (called 60/60° F.)
  5. In percentage of a substance in solution or mix or
  6. In arbitrary divisions such as °Baume (Be); degrees A. P. I.